The Monkey King in Chinese

Talking about (wù enlightenment) reminds me of a character in a major Chinese novel written during the Ming Dynasty. This book is titled “西游记 (Xīyóujì), often translated as “Journey to the West”. The general plot of this fantasy novel is not unlike that of “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz”, involving a journey on which the main character is aided by a number of other characters. However, “西游记 (Xīyóujì), 100 chapters long, features many more varied characters, mystical creatures, demons and seemingly endless episodes.

The principal character in “西游记 (Xīyóujì) is a monk, and the objective of his journey is to acquire sacred texts of Buddhism from 印度 (yìndù India). You can find a well written summary at this link.

Each of the main characters in the novel serves to illustrate a certain set of human characteristics. Let’s see if we can use some of the adjectives listed in Chapter 8 of “Learn Chinese through Songs and Rhymes” to describe the personalities of these characters.

The monk, 唐三藏 (Táng Sānzàng), is dedicated to his cause. He is idealistic and benevolent, but his defenselessness and impracticality are often taken advantage of by the team’s adversaries.

唐三藏心地善良, 但是无能.
Táng Sānzàng xīndì shànliáng, dànshì wúnéng.
Tang Sanzang is of a kindhearted nature, but incompetent.

The most capable and the most interesting of the monk’s three disciples is a mystical monkey born out of a rock. He becomes the Monkey King, 猴王 (hóu wáng), and receives training from a mentor, who gives him the name 悟空 (Wùkōng). As the word (sūn) also means monkeys, the author humorously assigned to this monkey the common Chinese surname (sūn grandson). At this link is a section of cartoon with helpful English subtitles that describes the early days in the life of the Monkey King. See if you can catch a few Chinese words here and there.

If you would like to see in animation how 孙悟空 (Sūn Wùkōng) meets up with the monk, you could watch the following two videos in English. (Video 1, Video 2) In these videos, Sun Wukong is referred to as Goku because this is how 悟空 (Wùkōng) is pronounced in Japanese

With a name like 悟空 (Wùkōng), which means being enlightened to the nothingness of life, Sun Wukong is, however, anything but. He has to get involved in any and everything, jumping at every opportunity to utilize his prowess to right the wrongs.

孙悟空聪明, 能干, 勇敢, 但是时常冲动.
Sūn Wùkōng cōngmíng, nénggàn, yǒnggǎn, dànshì shícháng chōngdòng.
Sun Wukong is clever, capable and brave, but often acts impulsively.

他是许多男孩儿心中的英雄.
Tā shì xǔduō nánháir xīn zhòng de yīngxióng.
He is the hero in the heart of many young boys.

One cannot help but chuckle when thinking about the second disciple who takes on the form of a hog. This 猪八戒 (Zhū Bājiè) represents many human faults – avarice, laziness and sensualism, which are counterbalanced by his amicable personality, straightforwardness and extraordinary physical strength.

猪八戒懒惰, 好吃, 但是强壮, 热情.
Zhū Bājiè lǎnduò, hàochī, dànshì qiángzhuàng, rèqíng.
Zhu Bajie is lazy and gluttonous, but strong and affectionate.

沙和尚 (Shā Héshàng) is kind of an average guy. He obeys the rules, does his duty with an even temper and takes a down-to-earth approach to solving problems. Being thus not an exciting character, he only gets a small part in the novel.

沙和尚正直, 忠实, 任劳任怨.
Shā Héshàng zhèngzhí, zhōngshí, rènláorènyuàn.
Friar Sand is upright, loyal, works hard and puts up with chiding and criticism.

The idiom, 任劳任怨 (rènláorènyuàn), could be translated as “being willing to put one’s nose to the grindstone”.

In reality, each one of us probably has some of the above-mentioned personality traits. Hopefully our strengths will compensate for our weaknesses and help us eventually achieve our individual goals.

Chinese idioms that follow the AABB pattern (3)

Don’t you just love these fun Chinese idioms? I know you can’t have enough of them. So, here are a few more descriptive phrases that you could learn and keep handy. Applied appropriately, these phrases will make you sound more authentic and less bookish.

迷迷糊糊 (mímíhūhū) means befuddled or being in a state of confusion.

我那时迷迷糊糊, 不知道自己说了什么.
Wǒ nàshí mímíhūhū, bù zhīdào zìjǐ shuō le shénme.
At that time I was in a daze and didn’t know what I was saying.

疯疯颠颠 (fēngfēngdiāndiān) is to behave like an insane person. This phrase is often used to describe a flighty or crazy behavior

别这样疯疯颠颠的.
Bié zhèyàng fēngfēngdiāndiān de.
Stop acting like a lunatic.

急急忙忙 (jíjímángmáng hurriedly) and 匆匆忙忙 (cōngcōngmángmáng hastily) are opposite to 慢慢腾腾 (mànmànténgténg unhurriedly).

他急急忙忙赶回家去.
Tā jíjímángmáng gǎnhuíjiā qù.
He hurried home.

慌慌张张 (huānghuāngzhāngzhāng) means being flustered and doing things chaotically or haphazardly.

他慌慌张张地穿上衣服.
Tā huānghuāngzhāngzhāng de chuān shàng yīfu.
He put on his clothes haphazardly.

密密麻麻 (mìmìmámá) means close and numerous; thickly dotted.

那张纸上印着密密麻麻的文字.
Nèi zhāng zhǐ shàng yìn zhe mìmìmámá de wénzì.
That sheet of paper was crammed with closely printed text.

地地道道 (dìdìdàodào) means authentic, genuine, or to the core.

这是地地道道的茅台酒.
Zhè shì dìdìdàodào de máotáijiǔ.
This is genuine Maotai (a famous Chinese liquor).

Many other four-character Chinese phrases are in popular use but have not attained the status of an official idiom. These are usually descriptive words that are uttered in the AABB pattern for emphasis. We could call them pseudo-idioms.

For example, 清楚 (qīngchǔ) means clear or clearly.

我已经清清楚楚地告诉了他.
Wǒ yǐjīng qīng qīng chǔ chǔ de gàosù le tā.
I’ve already told him plain and clear.

实在 (shízai) as an adverb means “truly”, such as in “He is truly careless.” As a description of a person or an item, it means being substantial, stable and solid.

他是个实实在在的人.
Tā shì gè shí shí zai zai de rén.
He is a down-to-earth person.

孤单 (gūdān) means lonely or alone.

他孤孤单单地住在那儿.
Tā gū gū dān dān de zhù zài nàr.
He lives there all by himself.

懒散 (lǎnsǎn) means sluggish or indolent.

他整天懒懒散散的.
Tā zhěngtiān lǎn lǎn sǎn sǎn de.
He dawdles the whole day.

弯曲 (wānqū) means zigzagged or curvy.

那条山路弯弯曲曲的.
Nèi tiáo shānlù wān wān qū qū de.
That mountain road meanders.

If you have a favorite Chinese idiom or pseudo-idiom in the AABB pattern, why not put it in a comment to share with everyone?

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